The general assumption accepted through the centuries by Muslims is that God loved His prophet so much that just before the crucifixion, He lifted up Jesus into heaven and allowed someone else made to resemble Him to be crucified in His place.
The key passage from the Qur'an upon which this assumption is based states: "And because of [the Jews'] disbelief and because of their saying: We slew the Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, Allah's messenger--They slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto them; and lo! those who disagree concerning it are in doubt thereof; they have no knowledge thereof save pursuit of a conjecture; they slew him not for certain. But Allah took him up unto Himself. Allah was ever Mighty, Wise" (Surah 4, Al-Nisa, 156-158).
Notice, the verse says “And because of [the Jews'] disbelief and because of their saying: We slew the Messiah Jesus, son of Mary.” “They slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto them”
Who killed Jesus? And what was the cause of Jesus death?
The Gospels are a work of faith not history.
According to the Gospels:
After Jesus of Nazareth was arrested, Caiaphas organized a hearing and declared him guilty of blasphemy and condemned him to death. According to the Gospels, Caiaphas had no legal authority to execute anyone (John 18:31)
Therefore the High-Priest handed him over to the Roman authorities (Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor), who found him guilty of treason (i.e., claiming to be the King of the Jews).
Joh 10:17 Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
Joh 10:18 No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.
Joh 19:30 When he had received the drink, Jesus said, "It is finished." With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.
Matt. 27:50 And when Jesus had cried out again in a loud voice, he gave up his spirit.
There is a difference between been killed and gave up the spirit? Quran says: the Jews did not kill Jesus. The Bible says: Jesus himself gave up his spirit. When He, himself gave up on his spirit how we can say some one killed Him; How many verses in the New Testament talking about sacrifice of Jesus. How many verses says that Jesus come to die for human beings? How we can say that Jesus been killed when He willingly offered himself as a ransom to the human beings?
What was the cause of Jesus death?
The Gospel of Mark records that Jesus was nailed to the cross at about nine o'clock in the morning and that He died the same day at about three o'clock in the afternoon. Although He had suffered scourging, He undoubtedly possessed enough natural vigor to maintain His breathing on the cross for more than six hours. The malefactors crucified by His side were still alive at the end of the day, even though they probably had been scourged also. To hasten their deaths so that no executions would be in progress during the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the soldiers in attendance broke their legs. Once they could no longer push themselves up, they died rapidly. But when the soldiers came to Jesus, they found that He was dead already. He could not have succumbed to suffocation so soon. What then was the cause of His death?
“… one of the soldiers with a spear pierced, and forthwith came there out blood and water.”
"The medical significance of the blood and water could be the result of a massive Myocardial Infarction, in which the heart ruptured. This is rather conclusive post-mortem evidence that Jesus died, not the usual crucifixion death by suffocation, ...” (Dr. C. Truman Davis)
“They slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto them”
The question is causality. Did they cause the death of Christ by a physical means? When a sinner brought a lamb to the temple for sacrifice, it was the sinner who killed it as he confessed his sin. It was the sin in symbolic terms which caused the death of the lamb. So it was with Jesus. He took our sins upon Himself who knew no sin. Sura 19:19 tells us that He was righteous from birth. He Himself said that no man took it from Him.
Note John 10:18 "No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father." This extraordinary power He received from Allah, just as He had received power to heal and raise the dead. In fact we are told in John 5:26, that Allah was the source even of His very own life "26 For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself;"
So you see that the Quran is in complete agreement with the Bible, for the Jews did NOT kill him as He Himself said before hand. He was here for a higher purpose, to demonstrate to the universe the results of Sin.
Jesus died not the usual crucifixion death by suffocation but it appeared so unto them.